Past Perfect


[had + past participle]


  • She had learnt Japanese before she moved to Japan.
  • Had he seen his uncle when he came back?
  • By 1970,he hadn't graduated from the niversity.
  • The past perfect expresses an activity that was completed before another activity or time in the past.

  • Examples:
  • She had cleaned the house before her husband came back.
  • By the time he was 42,he had taught for 20 years.
  • As soon as he had graduated from university,he got employed in a company.
  • They were arrested because they had demonstrated in the street.
  • She wishes she hadn't been divorced.
  • After her neighbour raped her,she suicided.





Had been +verb+ing.

The past perfect progressive emphasizes the duration of an activity that was in progress before another activity or time in the past.


  • She had been learning computation theories for seven years before she invented that software..
  • Had his wife been accompanying him through the cheering crowds?
  • he had been killing ruthlessly his political oponents for years without qualm.

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